Ideally, you distribute your key by personally giving it to your correspondents. In practice, however, keys are often distributed by email or some other electronic communication medium. Distribution by email is good practice when you have only a few correspondents, and even if you have many correspondents, you can use an alternative means such as posting your public key on your World Wide Web homepage. This is unacceptable, however, if people who need your public key do not know where to find it on the Web.
To solve this problem public key servers are used to collect and distribute public keys. A public key received by the server is either added to the server's database or merged with the existing key if already present. When a key request comes to the server, the server consults its database and returns the requested public key if found.
A keyserver is also valuable when many people are frequently signing other people's keys. Without a keyserver, when Blake sign's Alice's key then Blake would send Alice a copy of her public key signed by him so that Alice could add the updated key to her ring as well as distribute it to all of her correspondents. Going through this effort fulfills Alice's and Blake's responsibility to the community at large in building tight webs of trust and thus improving the security of PGP. It is nevertheless a nuisance if key signing is frequent.
Using a keyserver makes the process somewhat easier. When Blake signs Alice's key he sends the signed key to the key server. The key server adds Blake's signature to its copy of Alice's key. Individuals interested in updating their copy of Alice's key then consult the keyserver on their own initiative to retrieve the updated key. Alice need never be involved with distribution and can retrieve signatures on her key simply by querying a keyserver.
One or more keys may be sent to a keyserver using the command-line option --send-keys. The option takes one or more key specifiers and sends the specified keys to the key server. The key server to which to send the keys is specified with the command-line option --keyserver. Similarly, the option --recv-keys is used to retrieve keys from a keyserver, but the option --recv-keys requires a key ID be used to specify the key. In the following example Alice updates her public key with new signatures from the keyserver certserver.pgp.com and then sends her copy of Blake's public key to the same keyserver to contribute any new signatures she may have added.
alice% gpg --keyserver certserver.pgp.com --recv-key 0xBB7576AC gpg: requesting key BB7576AC from certserver.pgp.com ... gpg: key BB7576AC: 1 new signature gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: new signatures: 1 alice% gpg --keyserver certserver.pgp.com --send-key firstname.lastname@example.org gpg: success sending to 'certserver.pgp.com' (status=200)