3.2 Option Summary
Note that all long options with the exception of --options
and --homedir may also be given in the configuration file
after stripping off the two leading dashes.
- Reads configuration from file instead of from the default
per-user configuration file. The default configuration file is named
dirmngr.conf and expected in the home directory.
- Set the name of the home directory to dir. This option is only
effective when used on the command line. The default is
the directory named .gnupg directly below the home directory
of the user unless the environment variable
GNUPGHOME has been set
in which case its value will be used. Many kinds of data are stored within
- Outputs additional information while running.
You can increase the verbosity by giving several
verbose commands to dirmngr, such as -vv.
- Append all logging output to file. This is very helpful in
seeing what the agent actually does. Use socket:// to log to
- Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may be a
numeric value or by a keyword:
- No debugging at all. A value of less than 1 may be used instead of
- Some basic debug messages. A value between 1 and 2 may be used
instead of the keyword.
- More verbose debug messages. A value between 3 and 5 may be used
instead of the keyword.
- Even more detailed messages. A value between 6 and 8 may be used
instead of the keyword.
- All of the debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be
used instead of the keyword. The creation of hash tracing files is
only enabled if the keyword is used.
How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They are
however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.
- Set debugging flags. This option is only useful for debugging and its
behavior may change with a new release. All flags are or-ed and may
be given in C syntax (e.g. 0x0042) or as a comma separated list of
flag names. To get a list of all supported flags the single word
"help" can be used.
- Same as
- Enable debugging of GNUTLS at level.
- When running in server mode, wait n seconds before entering the
actual processing loop and print the pid. This gives time to attach a
- On some platforms dirmngr is able to detect the removal of
its socket file and shutdown itself. This option disable this
self-test for debugging purposes.
- Format the info output in daemon mode for use with the standard Bourne
shell respective the C-shell. The default is to guess it based on the
SHELL which is in almost all cases
- Enabling this option forces loading of expired CRLs; this is only
useful for debugging.
- This option switches Dirmngr and thus GnuPG into “Tor mode” to route
all network access via Tor (an anonymity network). Certain other
features are disabled if this mode is active.
- This option forces the use of the system's standard DNS resolver code.
This is mainly used for debugging. Note that on Windows a standard
resolver is not used and all DNS access will return the error “Not
Implemented” if this function is used.
- When possible use a recursive resolver instead of a stub resolver.
- Set the timeout for the DNS resolver to N seconds. The default are 30
- Allow Dirmngr to connect to
https://versions.gnupg.org to get
the list of current software versions. If this option is enabled, or
if use-tor is active, the list is retrieved when the local
copy does not exist or is older than 5 to 7 days. See the option
--query-swdb of the command gpgconf for more
details. Note, that regardless of this option a version check can
always be triggered using this command:
gpg-connect-agent --dirmngr 'loadswdb --force' /bye
- Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that gpg
communicates with to receive keys, send keys, and search for
keys. The format of the name is a URI:
`scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The scheme is the type of keyserver:
"hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP
keyservers, or "mailto" for the Graff email keyserver. Note that your
particular installation of GnuPG may have other keyserver types
available as well. Keyserver schemes are case-insensitive. After the
keyserver name, optional keyserver configuration options may be
provided. These are the same as the --keyserver-options of
gpg, but apply only to this particular keyserver.
Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally no
need to send keys to more than one server. The keyserver
hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses round robin DNS to give a different
keyserver each time you use it.
If exactly two keyservers are configured and only one is a Tor hidden
service (.onion), Dirmngr selects the keyserver to use depending on
whether Tor is locally running or not. The check for a running Tor is
done for each new connection.
If no keyserver is explicitly configured, dirmngr will use the
built-in default of hkps://hkps.pool.sks-keyservers.net.
- In “Tor mode” Dirmngr uses a public resolver via Tor to resolve DNS
names. If the default public resolver, which is
not be used a different one can be given using this option. Note that
a numerical IP address must be given (IPv6 or IPv4) and that no error
checking is done for ipaddr.
- Entirely disables the use of LDAP.
- Entirely disables the use of HTTP.
- When looking for the location of a CRL, the to be tested certificate
usually contains so called CRL Distribution Point (DP) entries
which are URLs describing the way to access the CRL. The first found DP
entry is used. With this option all entries using the HTTP
scheme are ignored when looking for a suitable DP.
- This is similar to --ignore-http-dp but ignores entries using
the LDAP scheme. Both options may be combined resulting in
ignoring DPs entirely.
- Ignore all OCSP URLs contained in the certificate. The effect is to
force the use of the default responder.
- If the environment variable http_proxy has been set, use its
value to access HTTP servers.
- Use host and port to access HTTP servers. The use of this
option overrides the environment variable http_proxy regardless
whether --honor-http-proxy has been set.
- Use host and port to connect to LDAP servers. If port
is omitted, port 389 (standard LDAP port) is used. This overrides any
specified host and port part in a LDAP URL and will also be used if host
and port have been omitted from the URL.
- Never use anything else but the LDAP "proxy" as configured with
--ldap-proxy. Usually dirmngr tries to use other
configured LDAP server if the connection using the "proxy" failed.
- Read the list of LDAP servers to consult for CRLs and certificates from
file instead of the default per-user ldap server list file. The default
value for file is dirmngr_ldapservers.conf.
This server list file contains one LDAP server per line in the format
Lines starting with a ‘#’ are comments.
Note that as usual all strings entered are expected to be UTF-8 encoded.
Obviously this will lead to problems if the password has originally been
encoded as Latin-1. There is no other solution here than to put such a
password in the binary encoding into the file (i.e. non-ascii characters
won't show up readable).1
- Specify the number of seconds to wait for an LDAP query before timing
out. The default is currently 100 seconds. 0 will never timeout.
- This option makes dirmngr add any servers it discovers when validating
certificates against CRLs to the internal list of servers to consult for
certificates and CRLs.
This option is useful when trying to validate a certificate that has
a CRL distribution point that points to a server that is not already
listed in the ldapserverlist. Dirmngr will always go to this server and
try to download the CRL, but chances are high that the certificate used
to sign the CRL is located on the same server. So if dirmngr doesn't add
that new server to list, it will often not be able to verify the
signature of the CRL unless the
--add-servers option is used.
Note: The current version of dirmngr has this option disabled by default.
- This option enables OCSP support if requested by the client.
OCSP requests are rejected by default because they may violate the
privacy of the user; for example it is possible to track the time when
a user is reading a mail.
- Use url as the default OCSP Responder if the certificate does
not contain information about an assigned responder. Note, that
--ocsp-signer must also be set to a valid certificate.
- Use the certificate with the fingerprint fpr to check the
responses of the default OCSP Responder. Alternatively a filename can be
given in which case the response is expected to be signed by one of the
certificates described in that file. Any argument which contains a
slash, dot or tilde is considered a filename. Usual filename expansion
takes place: A tilde at the start followed by a slash is replaced by the
content of HOME, no slash at start describes a relative filename
which will be searched at the home directory. To make sure that the
file is searched in the home directory, either prepend the name
with "./" or use a name which contains a dot.
If a response has been signed by a certificate described by these
fingerprints no further check upon the validity of this certificate is
The format of the FILE is a list of SHA-1 fingerprint, one per
line with optional colons between the bytes. Empty lines and lines
prefix with a hash mark are ignored.
- The number of seconds a skew between the OCSP responder and them local
clock is accepted. Default is 600 (10 minutes).
- Seconds a response is at maximum considered valid after the time given
in the thisUpdate field. Default is 7776000 (90 days).
- The number of seconds an OCSP response is considered valid after the
time given in the NEXT_UPDATE datum. Default is 10800 (3 hours).
- Do not return more that n items in one query. The default is
- Add oid to the list of ignored certificate extensions. The
oid is expected to be in dotted decimal form, like
220.127.116.11. This option may be used more than once. Critical
flagged certificate extensions matching one of the OIDs in the list
are treated as if they are actually handled and thus the certificate
won't be rejected due to an unknown critical extension. Use this
option with care because extensions are usually flagged as critical
for a reason.
- Use the root certificates in file for verification of the TLS
certificates used with
hkps (keyserver access over TLS). If
the file is in PEM format a suffix of
.pem is expected for
file. This option may be given multiple times to add more
root certificates. Tilde expansion is supported.
hkp-cacert directive is present, dirmngr will make a
reasonable choice: if the keyserver in question is the special pool
hkps.pool.sks-keyservers.net, it will use the bundled root
certificate for that pool. Otherwise, it will use the system CAs.